Radar and Remote Sensing

Remote sensing using radar technologies is a constantly evolving field of work. The possibilities offered by radar devices are still to be explored. Their applications have room in fields as diverse as the meteorology, the security, the characterization of foods, of soils and a long et cetera. This is one of the most important areas in atlanTTic, the patents achieved in this area is proof of the quality of the results obtained.

In the last two decades, meteorological agencies in developed countries have implemented Doppler radar networks for the detection and monitoring of meteorological phenomena. These radars are able to locate precipitation, measure trajectories and estimate the type of rainfall and quantity. Within the meteo radar exists a type called polarimetric radars. These have the capacity to emit waves with different polarization, allowing to introduce more information to contrast data. The success and benefits (early warning of storms and tornados, prediction of floods, control of hydrographic resources, etc.) derived from the operation of these radar networks have led to the expansion and continuous updating of the same.

In other respects such as security in public places, the growing threat of terrorism, surveillance of people at security checkpoints such as airports and bus and train stations is increasingly important. Millimeter wave systems, generally in the 30 to 300 GHz band, are the most promising solutions because millimeter waves are non-ionizing and therefore pose no known health hazards at moderate power levels. Millimeter wave scanners allow to offer a solution to this technological demand, due to its good compromise between resolution of the obtained image, ability to penetrate through tissues and other materials, use of non-ionizing radiation, and relatively low cost.

Lines of Research

Líñas de Investigación

Polarimetric Doppler Measurement System

Measurement system providing all polarimetric and Doppler information. The transmitter consists of two transmission channels with different polarization and two reception channels. The data processing provides unbiased unbiased estimators of the polarimetric covariance matrix without reducing the radar Doppler capability.

UAV Landing System Assisted by Satellite Navigation Systems

Passive radar systems. They are radar systems that are based on the opportunistic use of the signals emitted by other systems of telecommunications. It detects the targets and determines their position and other characteristics through the reception and processing of the signal that disperse the targets when they are illuminated by the signals emitted by other radio systems.

Airborne systems and methods for detecting, locating and obtaining images of buried objects and characterizing the composition of the subsoil

GEODRON is a novel system for the non-destructive evaluation and identification and detection of objects buried in the ground, oriented mainly to the detection of explosives as antipersonnel mines, but useful for any application where necessary The detection of objects not identifiable to the naked eye.

Dynamic threat identification in security controls based on millimeter-wave technology

The millimeter-wave scanners provide a solution to the demand for greater security at airports, due to their good compromise between resolution of the image obtained, ability to penetrate through tissues and other materials, use of non-ionizing radiation, and cost Relatively low. In addition, the different behavior of millimeter waves when interacting with different materials can help their identification by the exploration system. The project focuses on the development of a new system for the inspection of persons.

New generation scanning reflecting antennas in millimeter detection systems for the reconstruction of moving images in security applications

As a result of previous projects, a 300 GHz image radar prototype was built and satisfactorily validated, including a sophisticated bifocal reflecting antenna developed by the group. Based on this experience and given the importance of the topic, this proposal focuses on the development of a new system for the inspection of people improving the previous design.

System of characterization of the radar signature of naval targets

System of characterization of the radar signature of all type of targets

Characterization, identification and / or non-destructive detection of materials and substances by THz spectrometry

Sensor aided beam alignment at mmWave and vehicular applications

One of the key challenges at mmWave is the overhead of beam training or channel estimation, necessary to establish the link. We have studied how to use out of band information provided by sensors or other communication systems to reduce beam configuration overhead. This idea is specially interesting in vehicular scenarios, where high mobility complicates the configuration of the system. An essential tool to exploit out of band information is the translation of channel information between different bands. We have also studied the integration of mmWave radar and communication inconnected vehicles.

Prototipos en mmWave

Estamos prototipando un sistema MIMO mmWave híbrido con 2 cadeas de RF, 2 no rx e 2 no rx, proporcionando un ancho de banda de 1 Ghz na banda de frecuencia de 60 Ghz. Para o prototipo BB estamos a utilizar unha plataforma baseada en chasis de National Instruments, cun controlador incorporado, liñas de interconexión interna e os seguintes módulos FPGA cored: 2 módulos de modulación e DAC que funcionan en 1,25 GS / s, 2 módulos ADC e demodulación traballando a 1,5 GS /s, 4 módulos de xestión de reloxo con referencia externa compensada, 2 módulos de codificación, 4 módulos de decodificación e 1 módulo de xestión MAC. Ademais dos algoritmos estándares necesarios para calquera ligazón básica de mmWave MIMO, actualmente estamos a implementar os nosos algoritmos de procesamento MIMO para a estimación de canles e a precodificación híbrida. Tamén estamos a implementar a codificación / decodificación turbo e LDPC.

Research Groups

Radio Systems (SR)
Signal Processing in Communications Group (GPSC)
Antennas, Radar and Optical Communications Group (COM)

The experimental laboratory “Antelia” has the necessary equipment for the design, manufacture and test of the circuits that compose this type of systems. Particularly it is necessary to mention the capacity to measure the characteristics of the antennas including the gain of the antenna according to a Test in anechoic chamber, with the accreditation ENAC 1141 / LE2222.

Other facilities to highlight:

  • Anechoic / semianechoic chamber of electromagnetic measurements of 9m x 7m x 7m (L x W x H) designed to operate up to 24GHz equipped with high performance automated positioner systems, high-end equipment and far-near field transformation software. Spherical range measurement system.
  • Millimeter head systems consisting of (a) Agilent PNA 5222A network vector analyzer, (b) modules (Tx / Rx + Rx) in the 220-330 GHz, 500-750GHz and 750-1,100GHz bands + calibration kit Bands + antennas.
  • Spectrometers in THz: (a) in the time domain (THz-TDS). Spectral range greater than 2 THz (typical> 3THz), dynamic range up to 50 dB, 5 GHz spectral resolution; (B) continuous wave (THz-CWS). Spectral range from 100 GHz to 2 THz, dynamic range up to 80 dB, 10 MHz of spectral resolution.
  • Supercomputing cluster. It consists of 4 nodes, each with 64 calculation cores and 1 TB of RAM.
  • Weather services.
  • Manufacturers of radar equipment.
  • Maritime and air navigation.
  • Security. Weapon and explosive detection.
  • Medical. Characterization of samples. Detection of cutaneous tumors, … (non-ionizing radiation)
  • Industrial (food). Detection of foreign bodies in production chains. Determination of alcohol and sugar contents in food. Inspection of packaged food.
  • Industrial (pharmaceutical). Characterization of antibiotics.
Title
Polarimetric Doppler Measurement System
Summary Measurement system providing all polarimetric and Doppler information. The transmitter consists of two transmission channels with different polarization and double reception channels. O data processing provides unbiased insensitive estimators of polarimetric covariance matrix and reduces the radar Doppler capability.
Application and Pros They became a fundamental tool for meteorological services after providing high-value data for the numerical algorithms of medium- and long-term prediction and facilitating the development of algorithms nowcasting for the detection and alert of adverse meteorological phenomena that can cause harm to the people or their assets.
Application sectors Meteorological services. Manufacturers of equipment. 3-PolD Brand. Rexistrada in Spain, Europe and USA.
Intellectual property Patents in progress.
Title
UAVs system assisted by satellite navigation systems
Summary Passive radar systems. These are radar systems that are based on opportunistic use of two signals emitted by other telecommunication systems. It detects targets and determines their position and other characteristics by receiving and processing the signal that disperse targets when illuminated by signals emitted by other radio systems.
Application and Pros All related to conventional radar technology. The main advantages are: (1) light equipment requiring no signal transmission, (2) low energy consumption, (3) high accuracy, (4) reliable, (5) low probability of interference to other systems, (6) reduced cost, (7) reduced weight.
Application sectors Maritime and air navigation.
Intellectual property Patent in process.
Title
Airborne systems and methods for the detection, location and obtaining of buried obxects images and the characterization of the subsoil composition (Geodron)
Summary GEODRON is a new system for the non-destructive evaluation and identification and detection of non-homed obxects, mainly aimed at the detection of explosives as antipersonnel mines, but useful for calcareous application, which is necessary for the detection of objects Non identifiable the first hit.
Application and Pros Main advantages:

    • It uses UAVs to detect objects buried in the chan by means of innovative techniques in the field of signals and their processing.
    • It can simultaneously characterize a ground and detect buried elements.
    • It allows to obtain a clear image of the subsoil and possible buried elements in it thanks to a SAR processing algorithm combined with an algorithm for elimination of clutter and an algorithm to correct the defocus of radar image due to possible oscillations of the UAV.
    • It emits and / or captures radar signals in different positions to be able to obtain 3D images of the subsoil with centimetric resolution.
Application sectors Mine detection, characterization of soils.
Intellectual property Propietary
Title
Dynamic threat identification in security controls based on millimeter-wave technology
Summary The millimeter-wave scanners provide a solution to the demand for greater security at airports, due to their good compromise between resolution of the image obtained, ability to penetrate through tissues and other materials, use of non-ionizing radiation, and cost Relatively low. In addition, the different behavior of millimeter waves when interacting with different materials can help their identification by the exploration system. The project focuses on the development of a new system for the inspection of persons.
Application and Pros Security at airports and other public access facilities.
Application sectors Security.
Intellectual property Industrial secret.
Title
New generation scanning reflecting antennas in millimeter detection systems for the reconstruction of moving images in security applications
Summary As a result of previous projects, a 300 GHz image radar prototype was built and satisfactorily validated, including a sophisticated bifocal reflecting antenna developed by the group. Based on this experience and given the importance of the topic, this proposal focuses on the development of a new system for the inspection of people improving the previous design.
Application and Pros Security in public access enclosures.
Application sectors Security.
Intellectual property Industrial secret.
Title
System of characterization of the radar signature of naval targets.
Summary
Application and Pros
Application sectors Security.
Intellectual property Industrial secret.
Title
Non-destructive characterization, identification and / or detection of materials and substances by THz spectrometry.
Summary
Application and Pros
Application sectors Application sectors Food, pharmaceutical use, medical use.
Intellectual property N/A
Title
Sensor aided beam alignment at mmWave and vehicular applications
Summary One of the key challenges at mmWave is the overhead of beam training or channel estimation, necessary to establish the link. We have studied how to use out of band information provided by sensors or other communication systems to reduce beam configuration overhead. This idea is specially interesting in vehicular scenarios, where high mobility complicates the configuration of the system. An essential tool to exploit out of band information is the translation of channel information between different bands. We have also studied the integration of mmWave radar and communication in connected vehicles.
Application and Pros Performance enhancement in mobility scenarios.
Application sectors Connected vehicles.
Intellectual property N/A
Title
Prototyping at mmWave
Summary We are prototyping a hybrid mmWave MIMO system with 2 RF chains, 2 at the rx and 2 at the rx, providing 1-GHz bandwidth at 60-GHz frequency band. For the BB prototype we are using a chassis-based platform by National Instruments, with an embedded controller, internal interconnection lines, and the following FPGA-cored modules: 2 modulation and DAC modules working at 1.25 GS/s, 2 ADC and demodulation modules working at 1.5 GS/s, 4 clock-management modules with compensated external reference, 2 encoding modules, 4 decoding modules and 1 MAC management module. In addition to standard algorithms needed for any basic mmWave SISO link, we are currently implementing our MIMO processing algorithms for channel estimation and hybrid precoding.We are also implementing turbo and LDPC encoding/decoding.
Application and Pros Improved performance of 5G technologies.
Application sectors Multisectoral in the impact sectors of the new 5G technology.
Intellectual property N/A